By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This publication provides rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal equipment for 1D oxide nanostructure guidance. those equipment characterize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, therefore, acceptable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately to be able to illustrate the primary of the sol-gel and hydrothermal education of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in short provided.
Throughout the ebook, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical houses of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures show fascinating optical and electric houses, because of their restricted morphology. additionally, a well-defined geometry could be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes offered a moderate photocatalytic job, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in relation to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor zone and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, more desirable gentle absorption, and quickly electron-transport potential have attracted major learn curiosity. The chemical and actual changes (microwave assisted hydrothermal equipment) mentioned the following enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on numerous substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate sooner than the hydrothermal coaching. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit might be obtained.
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Additional info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction determined that the transformation takes place step-wise and started at 375 C (Fig. 8). 2. 2, one may notice that the different types of precursors and the post-washing conditions, in similar hydrothermal conditions, lead to formation of TiNTs with very similar morphology, but with very different reported structures. Establishing the proper structure of the synthesized TiNTs remains an open challenge. 1 Titanate Nanotubes Obtained by Hydrothermal Synthesis 33 Fig.
1 M HCl Anatase (Kojundo Chem. 0 (aq. sol. 0 (aq. sol. 7 nm (almost twice the value of anatase lattice parameter) and that the total number of the layers is not equal on both sides of the tubes, indicating that the structure of the tubes is formed by curling up the sheet structures [37, 42]. According to the literature data, for the time being the most widely accepted mechanism of TiNTs formation during the hydrothermal process involves four stages [23, 37, 42, 43, 101, 108–110]: 1. Dissolution of the TiO2 precursor and breaking the Ti–O–Ti bonds in the concentrated NaOH solution 2.
The influence of the alkaline sources used for hydrothermal synthesis on the morphology of the obtained ZnO particles was studied by Lu et al. . 5–13 Hydrothermal synthesis 200 C for 6 h 450 C for 3 h Sonochemical at 70–50 C 95 C for 10 h/ 20 h 200 C for 5 h 90 C, 30 min ZnO morphology Nanorods (pH ¼ 7), Flakes (pH ¼ 1) and flowers (pH ¼ 12) Rods References  Nanorod-based sphere-like superstructures  (a–c) Spherical nanoparticles   120 C, 17 h (d) Nanorods flower-like shape 60 C nanoparticles; 180–220 C nanorods; 260 C flower 3D flower-like 120 C for 24 h 450 C for 2 h 180 C for 3 h Dumbbell shaped Flower-like Nanorods  Supercritical conditions T ¼ 411 C P ¼ 305 bar Rods  60–260 C/16 h    When NH4OH was used as alkaline source, ZnO crystallized in a rod-like morphology highly orientated on a-axis.