By John W. I. Lee

Professor Lee offers a social and cultural historical past of the Cyreans, the mercenaries of Xenophon's Anabasis. whereas they've got usually been portrayed as a unmarried summary political neighborhood, this publication finds that lifestyles within the military used to be generally formed by means of a collection of smaller social groups: the formal unit employer of the lochos ('company'), and the casual comradeship of the suskenia ('mess group'). It contains complete remedy of the environmental stipulations of the march, ethnic and socio-economic relatives among the warriors, gear and delivery, marching and camp behaviour, consuming and ingesting, sanitation and treatment, and plenty of different themes. It additionally accords unique awareness to the non-combatants accompanying the warriors. It makes use of historical literary and archaeological proof, old and glossy comparative fabric, and views from army sociology and smooth warfare stories. This ebook is vital studying for somebody engaged on old Greek struggle or on Xenophon's Anabasis.

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The Greater Zapatas (Zab) typically hits its annual low in September–October, and is fordable in October; see Naval Intelligence Division (1944) 42, Beaumont et al. (1988) 356. On the topographical problems of the Lesser and Greater Zapatas, see Tuplin (1991) 45, Lendle (1995) 122–3. Naval Intelligence Division (1944) 166–9, Republic of Iraq (1962) 45, 57, 108. For more on the timeline of Cunaxa see Chapter Six; on heat illness and acclimation to high temperatures see Chapter Nine. 28 A Greek Army on the March also explain why both Cyreans and Persians sat motionless for twenty days – the balance of August – after Clearchus and Tissaphernes concluded a truce.

116 From Trapezus to 111 112 113 114 116 An. 20–2; cf. 6. The single exception was in Carduchia (An. 8), where the Cyreans refrained from appropriating some fine bronze vessels in the futile hope of appeasing the locals. On Xenophon’s descriptions of provisions cf. Tuplin (1991) 49. 115 An. 32. An. 3. For forays into hills see An. 12–32. 117 From Heracleia to Chrysopolis (across the straits from Byzantium), the littoral was narrower and cut by hills, but still traversable. 121 The weather, too, took a pleasant turn during this period of the campaign.

During their brief secession from the rest of the army, for example, the Arcadians and Achaeans announced their 137 138 139 140 141 143 Mossynoecian subjects: An. 30. An. 3. 6,000 medimnoi equals 288,000 choenikes; for one choenix as a day’s rations see Foxhall and Forbes (1982). 230–5, Amigues (1995) 72. 142 An. 37. An. 3. 144 An. 27–9. 145 An. 5–7. An. 1–2. 148 The bloody setback of Neon’s foragers near Calpe was not the only defeat the army suffered along the Black Sea coast. 149 It was not that they were any less skilled.

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