By Roger Brock, Stephen Hodkinson

This quantity comprises eighteen essays by means of validated and more youthful historians that study non-democratic replacement political structures and ideologies--oligarchies, monarchies, combined constitutions--along with diversified different types of communal and neighborhood institutions corresponding to ethnoi, amphiktyonies, and confederacies. The papers, which span the size and breadth of the Hellenic global spotlight the large political flexibility and variety of old Greek civilization.

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There is more to such cases than political instability: changes of constitution in the fifth and fourth centuries were usually tied up with foreign-policy issues, since hegemonic powers like Athens and Sparta tended to favour governments friendly to themselves (democracies in the former case, oligarchies in the latter) and would support changes in their interest. By the same token, would-be revolutionaries would look to a strong external power for support; and external support, combined with a protracted rivalry between leagues jockeying for advantage, increased the frequency of coups and the likelihood that they would, at least in the short term, succeed.

Pol. 29. 5; 30. 6). In a limited space we cannot do more than sketch a little of the constitutional variety in which classical Greece abounded, but the foregoing should serve to demonstrate the diversity which existed within the broad constitutional labels, and the possibility of change, whether gradual or sudRhodes with Lewis (1997) 330; Arist. Pol. 1275B7–8; Plutarch (Dion 53. , and there is no mention of assemblies in the account in the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia (19. 395 bc. Some sort of probouleutic body was the norm for all Greek states, and the evidence is much too fragmentary to establish any general principle behind the (apparent) presence or absence of councils in documents: community size and expense may have been more significant factors than ideology (Rhodes with Lewis 1997: 475–8).

M. Hall 1997) which could coexist with the presence of various types of local communities, including poleis. The constituent communities of ethn»e varied in character both in di·erent periods and from region to region; but polis communities could develop and exist within ethn»e without any necessary lessening of their a¶liation to a common ethnic or regional identity. For some poleis, indeed, ethnic identity was not just single but multiform. Many of the smaller poleis of classical Arcadia, such as Gortys, Oresthasion, and Trapezus, acknowledged not only their identity as Arcadians but also a narrower ethnic identity as—respectively—Kynourians, Mainalians, and Parrhasians (Nielsen 1996a; Roy 1996).

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