By G. Roth (auth.), Dr. Peter Kruse, Professor Dr. Michael Stadler (eds.)

Ambiguity in brain and Nature is the results of cognitive multistability, the phenomenon within which an unchanging stimulus, frequently visible, supplies upward push within the topic to an oscillating perceptual interpretation. The vase/face photo is likely one of the most renowned examples.
In this booklet scientists from many disciplines together with physics, biology, psychology, maths and laptop technology, current contemporary growth during this attention-grabbing region of cognitive technology. utilizing the phenomenon of multistability as a paradigm they search to appreciate how that means originates within the mind as a result of cognitive approaches. New advances are accomplished by means of employing strategies reminiscent of self-organization, chaos conception and intricate platforms to the newest result of mental and neurophysical experiments.

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We have chosen two problems which we have contributed in this context. 1 The stroboscopic alternatives An example of the use of multistable situations to identify the organizing principles ruling the visual system is given by the research on stroboscopic alternative motions carried out by the Hungarian psychologist P. von Schiller sixty years ago (1933). When a cross (like the one of Fig. 1) is presented and replaced by a similar cross rotated by 45°, in which direction will the stroboscopic motion be perceived?

The most important issue brought forward by synergetics is the idea that the brain is a self-organizing system that keeps itself close to instability points. Under these circumstances, the complex system "brain" can switch quickly from one state to another and is thus able to react quickly to new situations. 3 Basic concepts of synergetics In this field one considers systems composed of many components; the behavior of each component with index j is described by a variable qj where qj may be also a vector comprising several components.

2 A cognitive function Secondly, plurivocal situations can help us in understanding the workings of the visual system, discover rules, constraints, limits, ways in which extra perceptual elements (top-down subjective and cognitive factors) contribute to the formation of visual objects. (To say that our visual system picks up the useful information from an optical array or that it 'resonates' to the invariants that are contained in it is, on one hand, an important claim. It implies that it is not necessary "to go beyond the information given", because the information is all in the array.

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