By D. Shindo, T. Oikawa, Daisuke Shindo, Tetsuo Oikawa

Analytical electron microscopy is likely one of the strongest instruments this day for characterization of the complex fabrics that aid the nanotechnology of the twenty-first century. during this booklet the authors basically clarify either the elemental ideas and the newest advancements within the box. as well as a primary description of the inelastic scattering technique, a proof of the constituent is supplied. commonplace quantitative analytical thoughts applying electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also are defined, in addition to elemental mapping options. incorporated are sections on convergent beam electron diffraction and electron holography using the sphere emission gun. With beneficiant use of illustrations and experimental facts, this publication is a important source for a person all in favour of fabrics characterization, electron microscopy, fabrics technology, crystallography, and instrumentation.

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20 shows a relation between the spread of diffraction spots and the convergence angle of the incident electron beam. As shown in Fig. 20a, when the specimen is iIluminated by a parallel be am the diffraction spots become infinitely sm all in principle. On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 20b, when the specimen is illuminated with the convergent beam, the spots change to disks. The convergence angle ais obtained by comparing the radius of the disk with the diffraction angle 2e. 2). 6 Viewing Chamber and Camera Chamber (Image Recording System) It is possible to observe electron microscopic images and diffraction patterns projected on the fluorescent screen in a viewing chamber.

1). Taking these situations into account, analytical techniques related to inelastic scattering due to processes noted in items 2-4 in the list are described below. Before explaining measurement and analysis of the spectra, we describe the spectrometers for EELS (see Sect. 2), the analytical techniques (see Sect. 3), and the theoretical background (see Sect. 4). D. , Analytical Electron Microscopy for Materials Science © Springer Japan 2002 44 3. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Ineident eleetrons Thus, the electron starts a round motion in the field.

The electron starts to make a rotation al motion clockwise but then experiences thc r-direction force by z-component B 2z of the magnetic field B b wh ich converges the electrons to the axis. Thus the electron is focused at a point on the axis (focal point). 17b shows an electron-focusing trajectory (the distance from the optical axis) neglecting the rotational motion. The focusing action of the magnetic lens can be considered to be a convex lens of light. 17c shows the rotational trajectory of an electron.

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