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255) recently showed that nanospray can tolerate salt concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than can be handled with an IonSpray source. This is attributed to the formation of droplets about an order of magnitude smaller in nanospray than in conventional ESI sources and reduced competition between salt and analyte ions for the droplet surface as the ratio of surface area to droplet volume decreases. Nanospray methods are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2. 2. Other Techniques a.

Both approaches were successful and gave comparable detection limits. A benefit of the LC/MS approach is that sample derivatization is not required. III. MASS ANALYZERS The operating principles of the various mass analyzers have been discussed at length in numerous other books and reviews, and a detailed discussion of each analyzer is beyond the scope of this chapter. The following discussion concerns only those features that are relevant to each mass analyzer’s use with electrospray ionization.

Other useful solvents include dichloromethane and dichloromethane–methanol mixtures, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, and dimethyl formamide (DMF). Solvents that do not work well for ESI are hydrocarbons such as hexane, aromatics such as benzene, and other nonpolar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride. Toluene is not particularly well suited for use as an ESI solvent, but it has been used in some fullerene studies (64,65).

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