By Frederick K. Lutgens, Edward J. Tarbuck, Cameron J. Tsujita, Stephen Hicock

This relied on and best-selling textual content makes a frequently complicated topic available to starting scholars with a robust concentrate on clarity and illustrations. Earth: An advent to actual Geology deals an interesting survey of simple geologic ideas and ideas utilizing non-technical language and the main proper Canadian and foreign examples.

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Extra info for Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology (3rd Canadian Edition)

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Layers Defined by Composition The crust, Earth s comparatively thin, rocky outer skin, is generally divided into oceanic and continental crust. The oceanic crust is roughly 7 kilometres thick and composed of dark rocks called basalt (see Chapter 3). By contrast, the continental crust averages 35 40 kilometres thick but may exceed 70 kilometres in some mountainous regions. Unlike the oceanic crust, which has a relatively homogeneous chemical composition, the continental crust consists of many rock types.

9). About 5 billion years ago this huge cloud of gases and minute particles began to gravitationally contract (what triggered the collapse is not known). As this slowly spiralling nebula contracted, it rotated faster and faster for the same reason ice skaters do when they draw their arms toward their bodies. 9). By this time the once vast cloud had assumed a flat disk shape with a large concentration of material at its centre called the protosun (pre-Sun). During the collapse, gravitational energy was converted to thermal energy (heat), causing the temperature of the inner portion of the nebula to dramatically rise.

22). Using this as the dividing line, we find that about 60 percent of Earth s surface is represented by ocean basins, and the remaining 40 percent, by continents. Continents The most prominent topographic features of the continents are linear mountain belts. Although the distribution of mountains may appear to be random, this is not the case. When the youngest mountains are considered, we find that they are located principally in two zones. The circum-Pacific belt (the region surrounding the Pacific Ocean) includes the mountains of the western Americas and continues into the western Pacific in the form of volcanic island arcs.

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