By Dr. Friederike Krämer, Dr. Norbert Mencke (auth.)
The booklet describes in nice aspect the complicated lifestyles cycle of fleas. The textual content relies at the instance of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), crucial ectoparasite. The cat flea parasitizes not just canines and cats but additionally warm-blooded animals or even people. in addition to being the reason for painfully itching bites and allergic pores and skin illnesses it's also a vector for viruses, micro organism, nematodes and cestodes. through the years the marketplace for insecticide use in small animals has turn into an incredible phase of the chemical-pharmaceutical industry.
Insecticides of the hot new release will not be purely struggle the present infestation (therapy) yet must also successfully hinder new infestations for weeks (prophylaxis). the newest type of chemical compounds built to this impact are chloronicotinyls (syn. neonicotinoides). Imidacloprid is the 1st member of this type of pesticides with a excessive selectivity in the direction of the positioning of motion inside an insect. utilized to the outside it combats flea infestation and forestalls new infestations for no less than 4 weeks. Flea Biology and keep an eye on describes the complete improvement in the back of the compound, beginning with its discovery all of the option to its use within the ultimate product.
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The publication describes in nice element the advanced lifestyles cycle of fleas. The textual content relies at the instance of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), crucial ectoparasite. The cat flea parasitizes not just canines and cats but additionally warm-blooded animals or even people. along with being the reason for painfully itching bites and allergic dermis ailments it's also a vector for viruses, micro organism, nematodes and cestodes.
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Additional info for Flea Biology and Control: The Biology of the Cat Flea Control and Prevention with Imidacloprid in Small Animals
Water and food reserves dropping below a critical level, triggering emergence mechanisms, or a weaker cocoon produced by an incompletely nourished prepupa not impeding adult emergence could be possible reasons. But the primary factor responsible for initiating adult emergence and reducing the randomness of host location will be host-produced stimuli (Silverman and Rust 1985). Pressure and heat are the two main stimuli inducing rapid emergence from the cocoon, in detail pressure of 13-254 g/cm2 and temperature between 32-38°C (Silverman and Rust 1985).
Furthermore it has been observed that the spermatheca (sperm holding organ) acquires progressively more sperm over the first 24 hours (Akin 1984). e. females tend to develop before males) in insect species (Thornhill and Alcock 1983). Although most insect species exhibit protandry (males tend to emerge before females), cat fleas belong to a much smaller group that exhibits protogony (Thornhill and Alcock 1983). The multiple mating (Akin 1984) and the protogony may speak for possible sperm precedence in cat fleas (Dryden and Smith 1994).
3 days (Dryden 1989a). No life cycle stage (egg, larva, pupa or adult) can survive for ten days at 3°C or five days at -1°C (Silverman and Rust 1983). 8 days (Osbrink and Rust 1984). At temperatures of 5-15°C and 70-90% RH C. canis imagines were observed to survive seven days and C. felis adults an average of ten days. 1981b). Longevity of unfed adult cat fleas increases significantly in saturated air at 16°C compared to Adults combinations of lower RH's and higher temperatures (Silverman et al.