By P. W. Bridgman

1961 variation.

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25), which are argued to be generally valid constitutive equations for sufficiently slow flow). From a physical point of view, the generation of unequal normal stress components, and hence non-zero values of N, and N,, arises from the fact that in a flow process the microstructure of the liquid becomes anisotropic. For instance, in a dilute polymeric system, the chain molecules, which at rest occupy an enveloping volume of approximately spherical shape, deform to an ellipsoidal shape in a flow field.

25% mentioned above. In fact for mechanical instruments, accuracies of ten times this figure are more realistic. [Chap. 2 Viscosity 26 F$Ri",z2 VISCoMETER TYPE 1 BOB SPEED AND DIAMETER 1 MEASUREMENT COUPLE 1 CONVENIENCE * * 1 ROBUSTNESS * Fig. 10. Examples of industrial viscometers with complicated flow fields, including star-ratings for convenience and robustness. 2 Industrial shop-floor instruments Some viscometers used in industry have complicated flow and stress fields, although their operation is simple.

14) 30 Viscosity Couple measuring device ___--. I L Rate a- [Chap. 2 \ ,, 8 Fig. 12. The cone-and-plate viscometer. Cross-sectional diagram of one possible configuration, viz. cone on top, rotating plate and couple measured on the cone. The inset shows the form of truncation used in many instruments. approaches unity. For a power-law liquid, the values of the shear rate and shear stress in the liquid at the rotating cylinder of radius r, are then given by and Again, at any particular value of 52,, n can be calculated as the local value of d(ln C)/d(ln 9,).